# 7.2: Rational and Irrational Numbers (2023)

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##### Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Identify rational numbers and irrational numbers
• Classify different types of real numbers

### Be Prepared 7.1

Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.

Write $3.193.19$ as an improper fraction.
If you missed this problem, review Example 5.4.

### Be Prepared 7.2

Write $511511$ as a decimal.
If you missed this problem, review Example 5.30.

### Be Prepared 7.3

Simplify: $144.144.$
If you missed this problem, review Example 5.69.

### Identify Rational Numbers and Irrational Numbers

Congratulations! You have completed the first six chapters of this book! It's time to take stock of what you have done so far in this course and think about what is ahead. You have learned how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, fractions, integers, and decimals. You have become familiar with the language and symbols of algebra, and have simplified and evaluated algebraic expressions. You have solved many different types of applications. You have established a good solid foundation that you need so you can be successful in algebra.

In this chapter, we'll make sure your skills are firmly set. We'll take another look at the kinds of numbers we have worked with in all previous chapters. We'll work with properties of numbers that will help you improve your number sense. And we'll practice using them in ways that we'll use when we solve equations and complete other procedures in algebra.

We have already described numbers as counting numbers, whole numbers, and integers. Do you remember what the difference is among these types of numbers?

 counting numbers $1,2,3,4…1,2,3,4…$ whole numbers $0,1,2,3,4…0,1,2,3,4…$ integers $…−3,−2,−1,0,1,2,3,4……−3,−2,−1,0,1,2,3,4…$

#### Rational Numbers

What type of numbers would you get if you started with all the integers and then included all the fractions? The numbers you would have form the set of rational numbers. A rational number is a number that can be written as a ratio of two integers.

### Rational Numbers

A rational number is a number that can be written in the form $pq,pq,$ where $pp$ and $qq$ are integers and $q≠o.q≠o.$

All fractions, both positive and negative, are rational numbers. A few examples are

$45,−78,134,and−20345,−78,134,and−203$

Each numerator and each denominator is an integer.

We need to look at all the numbers we have used so far and verify that they are rational. The definition of rational numbers tells us that all fractions are rational. We will now look at the counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, and decimals to make sure they are rational.

Are integers rational numbers? To decide if an integer is a rational number, we try to write it as a ratio of two integers. An easy way to do this is to write it as a fraction with denominator one.

$3=31−8=−810=013=31−8=−810=01$

Since any integer can be written as the ratio of two integers, all integers are rational numbers. Remember that all the counting numbers and all the whole numbers are also integers, and so they, too, are rational.

What about decimals? Are they rational? Let's look at a few to see if we can write each of them as the ratio of two integers. We've already seen that integers are rational numbers. The integer $−8−8$ could be written as the decimal $−8.0.−8.0.$ So, clearly, some decimals are rational.

Think about the decimal $7.3.7.3.$ Can we write it as a ratio of two integers? Because $7.37.3$ means $7310,7310,$ we can write it as an improper fraction, $7310.7310.$ So $7.37.3$ is the ratio of the integers $7373$ and $10.10.$ It is a rational number.

In general, any decimal that ends after a number of digits (such as $7.37.3$ or $−1.2684)−1.2684)$ is a rational number. We can use the reciprocal (or multiplicative inverse) of the place value of the last digit as the denominator when writing the decimal as a fraction.

### Example 7.1

Write each as the ratio of two integers: $−15−15$$6.816.81$$−367.−367.$

 ⓐ $−15−15$ Write the integer as a fraction with denominator 1. $−151−151$
 ⓑ $6.816.81$ Write the decimal as a mixed number. $681100681100$ Then convert it to an improper fraction. $681100681100$
 ⓒ $−367−367$ Convert the mixed number to an improper fraction. $−277−277$

### Try It 7.1

Write each as the ratio of two integers: $−24−24$$3.57.3.57.$

### Try It 7.2

(Video) 7.2A Complex and Irrational Roots 9/5/19

Write each as the ratio of two integers: $−19−19$ $8.41.8.41.$

Let's look at the decimal form of the numbers we know are rational. We have seen that every integer is a rational number, since $a=a1a=a1$ for any integer, $a.a.$ We can also change any integer to a decimal by adding a decimal point and a zero.

$Integer−2,−1,0,1,2,3Decimal−2.0,−1.0,0.0,1.0,2.0,3.0These decimal numbers stop.Integer−2,−1,0,1,2,3Decimal−2.0,−1.0,0.0,1.0,2.0,3.0These decimal numbers stop.$

We have also seen that every fraction is a rational number. Look at the decimal form of the fractions we just considered.

$Ratio of Integers 45, −78, 134, −203 Decimal Forms 0.8, −0.875, 3.25, −6.666… These decimals either stop or repeat. −6.66— Ratio of Integers 45, −78, 134, −203 Decimal Forms 0.8, −0.875, 3.25, −6.666… These decimals either stop or repeat. −6.66—$

What do these examples tell you? Every rational number can be written both as a ratio of integers and as a decimal that either stops or repeats. The table below shows the numbers we looked at expressed as a ratio of integers and as a decimal.

Rational Numbers
Fractions Integers
Number $45,−78,134,−20345,−78,134,−203$ $−2,−1,0,1,2,3−2,−1,0,1,2,3$
Ratio of Integer $45,−78,134,−20345,−78,134,−203$ $−21,−11,01,11,21,31−21,−11,01,11,21,31$
Decimal number $0.8,−0.875,3.25,−6.6–,0.8,−0.875,3.25,−6.6–,$ $−2.0,−1.0,0.0,1.0,2.0,3.0−2.0,−1.0,0.0,1.0,2.0,3.0$

#### Irrational Numbers

Are there any decimals that do not stop or repeat? Yes. The number $ππ$ (the Greek letter pi, pronounced ‘pie’), which is very important in describing circles, has a decimal form that does not stop or repeat.

$π=3.141592654.......π=3.141592654.......$

Similarly, the decimal representations of square roots of whole numbers that are not perfect squares never stop and never repeat. For example,

$5=2.236067978.....5=2.236067978.....$

A decimal that does not stop and does not repeat cannot be written as the ratio of integers. We call this kind of number an irrational number.

### Irrational Number

An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers. Its decimal form does not stop and does not repeat.

Let's summarize a method we can use to determine whether a number is rational or irrational.

If the decimal form of a number

• stops or repeats, the number is rational.
• does not stop and does not repeat, the number is irrational.

### Example 7.2

Identify each of the following as rational or irrational:

1. $0.583–0.583–$
2. $0.4750.475$
3. $3.605551275…3.605551275…$

$0.583–0.583–$
The bar above the $33$ indicates that it repeats. Therefore, $0.583–0.583–$ is a repeating decimal, and is therefore a rational number.

$0.4750.475$
This decimal stops after the $55$, so it is a rational number.

$3.605551275…3.605551275…$
The ellipsis $(…)(…)$ means that this number does not stop. There is no repeating pattern of digits. Since the number doesn't stop and doesn't repeat, it is irrational.

### Try It 7.3

Identify each of the following as rational or irrational:

$0.290.29$$0.816–0.816–$$2.515115111…2.515115111…$

### Try It 7.4

Identify each of the following as rational or irrational:

$0.23–0.23–$$0.1250.125$$0.418302…0.418302…$

Let's think about square roots now. Square roots of perfect squares are always whole numbers, so they are rational. But the decimal forms of square roots of numbers that are not perfect squares never stop and never repeat, so these square roots are irrational.

### Example 7.3

Identify each of the following as rational or irrational:

1. $3636$
2. $4444$

The number $3636$ is a perfect square, since $62=36.62=36.$ So $36=6.36=6.$ Therefore $3636$ is rational.

Remember that $62=3662=36$ and $72=49,72=49,$ so $4444$ is not a perfect square.

This means $4444$ is irrational.

(Video) How to represent root 7.2 on number line.Locate root 7.2 on number line.Shsirclasses.

### Try It 7.5

Identify each of the following as rational or irrational:

1. $8181$
2. $1717$

### Try It 7.6

Identify each of the following as rational or irrational:

1. $116116$
2. $121121$

### Classify Real Numbers

We have seen that all counting numbers are whole numbers, all whole numbers are integers, and all integers are rational numbers. Irrational numbers are a separate category of their own. When we put together the rational numbers and the irrational numbers, we get the set of real numbers.

Figure 7.2 illustrates how the number sets are related.

### Real Numbers

Real numbers are numbers that are either rational or irrational.

Does the term “real numbers” seem strange to you? Are there any numbers that are not “real”, and, if so, what could they be? For centuries, the only numbers people knew about were what we now call the real numbers. Then mathematicians discovered the set of imaginary numbers. You won't encounter imaginary numbers in this course, but you will later on in your studies of algebra.

### Example 7.4

Determine whether each of the numbers in the following list is a whole number, integer, rational number, irrational number, and real number.

$−7,145,8,5,5.9,−64−7,145,8,5,5.9,−64$

The whole numbers are $0,1,2,3,…0,1,2,3,…$ The number $88$ is the only whole number given.

The integers are the whole numbers, their opposites, and $0.0.$ From the given numbers, $−7−7$ and $88$ are integers. Also, notice that $6464$ is the square of $88$ so $−64=−8.−64=−8.$ So the integers are $−7,8,−64.−7,8,−64.$

Since all integers are rational, the numbers $−7,8,and−64−7,8,and−64$ are also rational. Rational numbers also include fractions and decimals that terminate or repeat, so $145and5.9145and5.9$ are rational.

The number $55$ is not a perfect square, so $55$ is irrational.

All of the numbers listed are real.

We'll summarize the results in a table.

Number Whole Integer Rational Irrational Real
$−7−7$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$
$145145$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$
$88$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$
$55$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$
$5.95.9$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$
$−64−64$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$ $✓✓$

### Try It 7.7

Determine whether each number is a whole number, integer, rational number, irrational number, and real number: $−3,−2,0.3–,95,4,49.−3,−2,0.3–,95,4,49.$

### Try It 7.8

Determine whether each number is a whole number, integer, rational number, irrational number, and real number: $−25,−38,−1,6,121,2.041975…−25,−38,−1,6,121,2.041975…$

### Section 7.1 Exercises

#### Practice Makes Perfect

Rational Numbers

In the following exercises, write as the ratio of two integers.

1.

1. $5 5$
2. $3.19 3.19$
(Video) Go Math 8 7.2 Equations with Rational Numbers Guided Practice

2.

1. $8 8$
2. $−1.61 −1.61$

3.

1. $−12 −12$
2. $9.279 9.279$

4.

1. $−16−16$
2. $4.3994.399$

In the following exercises, determine which of the given numbers are rational and which are irrational.

5.

$0.750.75$, $0.223–0.223–$, $1.39174…1.39174…$

6.

$0.360.36$, $0.94729…0.94729…$, $2.528–2.528–$

7.

$0.45—0.45—$, $1.919293…1.919293…$, $3.593.59$

8.

$0.13–,0.42982…0.13–,0.42982…$, $1.8751.875$

In the following exercises, identify whether each number is rational or irrational.

9.

1. $25 25$
2. $30 30$

10.

1. $4444$
2. $4949$

11.

1. $164 164$
2. $169 169$

12.

(Video) Locate√7.2 on the number line

1. $225 225$
2. $216 216$

Classifying Real Numbers

In the following exercises, determine whether each number is whole, integer, rational, irrational, and real.

13.

$−8−8$, $0,1.95286....0,1.95286....$, $125125$, $3636$, $99$

14.

$−9−9$, $−349−349$, $−9−9$, $0.409—0.409—$,$116116$, $77$

15.

$−100−100$, $−7−7$, $−83−83$, $−1−1$, $0.770.77$, $314314$

#### Everyday Math

16.

Field trip All the $5th5th$ graders at Lincoln Elementary School will go on a field trip to the science museum. Counting all the children, teachers, and chaperones, there will be $147147$ people. Each bus holds $4444$ people.

How many buses will be needed?

Why must the answer be a whole number?

Why shouldn't you round the answer the usual way?

17.

Child care Serena wants to open a licensed child care center. Her state requires that there be no more than $1212$ children for each teacher. She would like her child care center to serve $4040$ children.

1. How many teachers will be needed?
2. Why must the answer be a whole number?
3. Why shouldn't you round the answer the usual way?

#### Writing Exercises

18.

In your own words, explain the difference between a rational number and an irrational number.

19.

Explain how the sets of numbers (counting, whole, integer, rational, irrationals, reals) are related to each other.

#### Self Check

After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

If most of your checks were:

…confidently. Congratulations! You have achieved the objectives in this section. Reflect on the study skills you used so that you can continue to use them. What did you do to become confident of your ability to do these things? Be specific.

(Video) Lesson 7.2 Equations with Rational Numbers

…with some help. This must be addressed quickly because topics you do not master become potholes in your road to success. In math, every topic builds upon previous work. It is important to make sure you have a strong foundation before you move on. Whom can you ask for help? Your fellow classmates and instructor are good resources. Is there a place on campus where math tutors are available? Can your study skills be improved?

…no—I don’t get it! This is a warning sign and you must not ignore it. You should get help right away or you will quickly be overwhelmed. See your instructor as soon as you can to discuss your situation. Together you can come up with a plan to get you the help you need.

## FAQs

### 7.2: Rational and Irrational Numbers? ›

Answer and Explanation: The number 7.2 is a rational number. A rational number is defined as a number that results when one integer is divided by another integer. Since you can obtain the number 7.2 by dividing the integer 72 by the integer 10, as in 72/10, 7.2 is considered a rational number.

Is 7.2 repeating rational? ›

Therefore, we can conclude that the answer to "Is 7.2 a rational number?" is yes.

An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as a fraction. The number given to us is a natural number, 7. where 7 is the numerator and 1 is the denominator. Therefore, the given number 7 is a rational number.

Is 7.21 a rational number? ›

Furthermore, the numerator and the denominator of the fraction above are integers. Therefore, we can conclude that the answer to "Is 7.21 a rational number?" is yes.

Is 7 √ 2 an irrational number? ›

Therefore 7+2 is a irrational number.

Is 7.2 rational or irrational? ›

The number 7.2 is a rational number. A rational number is defined as a number that results when one integer is divided by another integer. Since you can obtain the number 7.2 by dividing the integer 72 by the integer 10, as in 72/10, 7.2 is considered a rational number.

Is 7.1 a rational number? ›

Furthermore, the numerator and the denominator of the fraction above are integers. Therefore, we can conclude that the answer to "Is 7.1 a rational number?" is yes.

Is 7 irrational or irrational? ›

Hence, 7 is irrational.

Is 2.7 a rational number? ›

2.7 is a rational number but not a whole number.

Is 3.14 rational or irrational? ›

Since we represented the number '3.14' in the form of $\dfrac{p}{q}$ where $p,q$ are integers which are in simplest form and $q\ne 0$, we can conclude that '3.14' is a rational number.

### Is 7.27 rational or irrational? ›

A rational number can be written as a ratio of two integers and a decimal form that is either terminating or repeating. Otherwise, it is irrational which is nonrepeating and nonterminating. 7.27 can be written as 727 100 \dfrac{727}{100} 100727​ so it is rational.

Is 7.5 is a rational number? ›

7.5 is a rational number. A rational number is a quantity that can be expressed as a fraction.

Is 7.0 is a rational number? ›

To obtain the rational number 7, you can divide the integer 7 by the integer 1. Because you can obtain the number 7 by dividing two integers, 7 is called a rational number.

Is 2 √ 7 7 rational or irrational? ›

Thus, 2√7 / 7√7 is a rational number.

Which fraction is irrational? ›

Irrational Numbers: Any real number that cannot be written in fraction form is an irrational number. These numbers include non-terminating, non-repeating decimals, for example , 0.45445544455544445555..., or . Any square root that is not a perfect root is an irrational number.

How do you prove that √ 7 √ 2 is irrational? ›

Squaring this, a+b−2√ab=r2, so √ab is rational. If √ab is irrational, this can not hold. Therefore, if √ab is irrational, so is √a−√b. Since √14 is irrational, so is √7−√2.

Is 7.25 a irrational number? ›

Rational and Irrational Numbers

All integers and whole numbers are part of a bigger group called rational numbers. This group also includes fractions and decimals. That means [Math Error] and 7.25 are rational numbers.

Is 7.3 an irrational number? ›

Because 7.3 means 7310, we can write it as an improper fraction, 7310. So 7.3 is the ratio of the integers 73 and 10. It is a rational number. In general, any decimal that ends after a number of digits (such as 7.3 or −1.2684) is a rational number.

Is 5.676677666777 a irrational number? ›

No, because integers cannot be negative. Q. Jeremy says that 5.676677666777... is a rational number because it is a decimal that goes on forever with a pattern.

Why is 7 2 a rational number? ›

A rational number is one that can be expressed as a fraction or ratio between two integers (whole numbers). Since both 2 and 7 are integers, the fraction 2/7 is, by definition, a rational number.

### Is 7.1 a natural number? ›

A set of natural numbers looks like this: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14...}

Is 25.4777 a rational number? ›

Since the decimal part of 25.4777 terminates, 25.4777 is rational.

Why is root 7 irrational? ›

All square roots except perfect squares are irrational numbers. 7 is not a perfect square. Hence, the square root of 7 is irrational.

Why is radical 7 irrational? ›

Any number that does not seem to terminate after the decimal point is called an irrational number. In this case, √7 is an irrational number because its value, 2.645751311064591, doesn't terminate after the decimal, and it is a never-ending number.

Which all numbers are irrational? ›

The real numbers which cannot be expressed in the form of p/q, where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0 are known as irrational numbers. For example √2 and √ 3 etc. are irrational. Whereas any number which can be represented in the form of p/q, such that, p and q are integers and q ≠ 0 is known as a rational number.

Is 8.0 a rational number? ›

Rational Numbers

The number 8 is a rational number because it can be written as the fraction 8/1. Likewise, 3/4 is a rational number because it can be written as a fraction. Even a big, clunky fraction like 7,324,908/56,003,492 is rational, simply because it can be written as a fraction.

Is 8.5 a rational number? ›

We can represent 8.5 as172. So it is a rational number.

Is 3.0 is a rational number? ›

30 is a rational number.

Is 7.3 repeating a rational number? ›

Because 7.3 means 7310, we can write it as an improper fraction, 7310. So 7.3 is the ratio of the integers 73 and 10. It is a rational number. In general, any decimal that ends after a number of digits (such as 7.3 or −1.2684) is a rational number.

Is 7.5 repeating rational or irrational? ›

Since 7.5 can be expressed as mixed number or an improper fraction, it is not irrational.

### Is 7.25 repeating a rational number? ›

Therefore, we can conclude that the answer to "Is 7.25 a rational number?" is yes.

Are repeating negative numbers rational? ›

Decimals that are terminating or repeating are rational numbers, whether they are negative or positive. Decimals that are both non-repeating and non-terminating are not rational numbers.

Is 7.12 repeating rational or irrational? ›

Furthermore, the numerator and the denominator of the fraction above are integers. Therefore, we can conclude that the answer to "Is 7.12 a rational number?" is yes. Rational Number?

Is 0.7777 repeating a rational number? ›

The decimal, 0.7777..., cannot be a non-repeating decimal because this type of decimal, while repeating endlessly, does not have a set number of repeating digits. These decimals cannot be represented as a fraction. Such is the case with Pi. It's an irrational number that is always written in decimal form.

Is repeating decimal a irrational number? ›

Every repeating or terminating decimal is a rational number.

Is 7.27 repeating rational or irrational? ›

A rational number can be written as a ratio of two integers and a decimal form that is either terminating or repeating. Otherwise, it is irrational which is nonrepeating and nonterminating. 7.27 can be written as 727 100 \dfrac{727}{100} 100727​ so it is rational.

Is 7.25 rational or irrational? ›

All integers and whole numbers are part of a bigger group called rational numbers. This group also includes fractions and decimals. That means 35 and 7.25 are rational numbers.

Is 7.15 a rational number? ›

Furthermore, the numerator and the denominator of the fraction above are integers. Therefore, we can conclude that the answer to "Is 7.15 a rational number?" is yes.

Is 3.14 repeating irrational? ›

Pi is an irrational number, which means it cannot be represented as a simple fraction, and those numbers cannot be represented as terminating or repeating decimals. Therefore, the digits of pi go on forever in a seemingly random sequence.

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